Type 1 diabetes in children


Children with Type 1 diabetes are affected by the body’s failure to produce insulin. Children require insulin to survive, thus the deficiency must be made up for either by injections or an insulin pump. Children with Type 1 diabetes was also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes.

Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune condition. The immune system of the body harms the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. Insulin is the hormone responsible for regulation of sugar in the blood and utilize it to make energy. Glucose builds up in the blood when it cannot enter the cells. The body is harmed by high blood sugar, which also contributes to many of the complications and symptoms. Problems with high blood sugar can arise in any part of the body. Blood vessels and nerves may be harmed. It may be harmful to the heart, kidneys, and eyes.

Type 1 diabetes comes in two different types:

  • Immune-mediated diabetes: The most typical type 1 diabetes. This autoimmune condition results in destruction to the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas by the immune system.
  • Idiopathic type 1: A rare type of diabetes with unknown cause.

Type 1 diabetes in children cannot be cured, although it can be controlled. For kids with type 1 diabetes, improvements in blood sugar management and insulin delivery have improved quality of life.

It might be overwhelming for the parents to learn that their child has type 1 diabetes. Parents and the child will need to learn how to administer injections, count carbohydrates, and check blood sugar, depending on the child’s age.


Type 1 diabetes in children typically manifests quickly and may cause the following symptoms:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • High level of glucose in the blood and urine
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Irritability or behavior changes
  • Fruity-smelling breath

If there are signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in their child, consult a healthcare provider.


Type 1 diabetes has an unclear specific cause. However, in the majority of type 1 diabetics, the immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas. This process appears to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

When food is digested, sugar enters into the bloodstream. But because the child produces little or no insulin, the child’s bloodstream builds up sugar. If left untreated, this could result in problems that are life-threatening.

Risk factors

Although it can happen at any age, type 1 diabetes most frequently affects children and has the following are risk factors:

  • Family history: A child risk of getting type 1 diabetes increases if their parents or siblings have the disease.
  • Race: White children of non-Hispanic descent are more likely to have type 1 diabetes than children of other races.
  • Genetics: Type 1 diabetes is associated with specific genes that increases the risk.
  • Others: The autoimmune destruction of the islet cells may be brought on by exposure to different viruses.