Congenital mitral valve anomalies are heart issues (congenital heart defects) affecting the valve between the upper left chamber of the heart (left atrium) and lower left chamber (left ventricle.)
The following conditions are mitral valve anomalies:
- Thick or stiff valve flaps (leaflets)
- Joined together leaflets (fused) or deformed leaflets
- Missing cords, short and thick cords, or cords attached to the heart muscle close to the mitral valve are all examples of issues with the cords that support the valve.
- Issues with the heart’s muscle or tissue close to the mitral valve
- Several openings in the part around the mitral valve (double-orifice valve)
Types of heart valve disease caused by mitral valve anomalies:
- Mitral valve stenosis (narrowing of the valve). Blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle is decreased by stiffening of the leaflets and constriction of the orifice of the mitral valve.
- Mitral valve regurgitation (leaky mitral valve). As your heart contracts, the mitral valve flaps either fail to seal completely or bulge backward (mitral valve prolapse) into the left atrium. The mitral valve therefore spills blood.
Both mitral valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation may occur at the same time.
Other congenital cardiac problems are frequently present in people with mitral valve abnormalities.
Some people don’t experience the warning signs or symptoms of congenital heart disease until they are adults. Years after a congenital heart disease has been fixed, symptoms may come back.
Typical adult congenital heart disease signs and symptoms include:
- Breathing difficulties
- Irregular heart sound (heart murmur)
- Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
Seek immediate medical treatment if you experience any unsettling symptoms, such as chest pain or breathing difficulties.
Make an appointment to see your doctor if you have any of the signs or symptoms of congenital heart disease or if you had treatment for a congenital heart problem as a child.
One of the four heart valves that maintain proper blood flow is the mitral valve. Leaflets (flaps) on each valve open and close once with each heartbeat. Blood flow via the heart to the body may be diminished if a valve doesn’t open or close appropriately.
There are several reasons of mitral valve disease. Some types of mitral valve disease that can develop at birth (congenital heart defect).
Later in adulthood, mitral valve disease might also manifest (acquired). For instance, rheumatic fever frequently contributes to mitral valve stenosis. A strep infection that might harm the heart is the cause of this fever. This condition is known as rheumatic mitral valve disease.
Acquired mitral valve disease can also result from:
- Having an autoimmune disease (e.g., lupus)
- Changes related to age
- Other heart diseases
The following factors can raise the risk of mitral valve disease:
- Being old
- Some heart-related infections
- Certain heart disease and heart attack
- Taking some medications
- Congenital heart condition
- Exposure of the chest to radiation