Wet macular degeneration


Wet macular degeneration is one of the two main forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It occurs when blood vessels start to leak fluid or blood into the macula. Wet macular degeneration is a persistent eye condition characterized by blurred vision or the development of a blind spot in the central field of vision.

The macula plays a crucial role in providing clear vision in the direct line of sight. With AMD, the central vision becomes compromised, but peripheral vision remains unaffected, which means that total blindness does not typically result from this condition.

Early intervention can potentially restore vision in certain cases, making early detection and treatment essential in managing this condition and minimizing vision loss.


People with wet macular degeneration may notice a sudden onset of symptoms such as distorted or blurred central vision, and these symptoms tend to progress rapidly.

Common symptoms of wet macular degeneration include:

  • Decreased central vision in one or both eyes
  • Visual distortions, such as the apparent bending of straight lines.
  • Presence of a well- definedblurry or blind spot within the visual field
  • Increased blurriness in printed text
  • Challenges adapting to low-light environments
  • Requirement of increased lighting for reading or close-up tasks
  • Trouble recognizing faces

If any of the signs and symptoms are experienced, consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. Any observed changes in the central vision. Your capacity to perceive fine details diminishes. The loss of fine detail vision can be an early indicator of macular degeneration, particularly in individuals aged 60 and older.

Regular eye examinations are also essential for detecting and addressing vision changes.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) comes in two forms: wet macular degeneration and dry macular degeneration. Dry macular degeneration is the more common and less severe type. Interestingly, every case of wet macular degeneration initially begins as the dry type. Approximately 20% of individuals diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration eventually develop the wet variant.

Wet macular degeneration is a condition that develops in patients who initially have dry macular degeneration. Despite ongoing research, the exact cause of wet macular degeneration remains unknown.

There are various ways that wet macular degeneration might progress:

  • Loss of vision due to fluid buildup in the back of the eye: Fluid that seeps from the choroid may gather inside the layers of the retina or between the retina and the thin layer of cells known as the retinal pigment epithelium. These abnormalities in the layers of the macula may cause vision loss or distortions.
  • Loss of vision due to irregular blood vessel growth: Choroidal neovascularization is characterized by the abnormal development of new blood vessels originating from the choroid and extending into the macula. The function of the retina may be impacted by these blood vessels leaking blood or fluid. The choroid is a vascular layer between the retina and the sclera of the eye.

Risk factors

There are several risk factors for age-related macular degeneration, such as:

  • Age: People who are 55 years and older are more susceptible to this condition.
  • Race: White people are at a higher risk of macular degeneration.
  • Family history and genetics: Researchers have pinpointed several specific genes associated with the condition. This suggests that individuals with a family history of macular degeneration may be more predisposed to developing the condition due to shared genetic factors.
  • Being overweight: Early or intermediate macular degeneration, which may develop into a more advanced stage, are more likely to occur in people who are obese.
  • Smoking: The likelihood of developing macular degeneration is higher among active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke.
  • Underlying cardiovascular issues: An increased risk of developing macular degeneration is possible in individuals with conditions impacting their heart and blood vessels.