Type 2 diabetes


Diabetes mellitus type 2 is when the body is unable to utilize properly the energy that comes from the diet. As time passes, pancreas produces less insulin, and the cells begin to resist it. This chronic disorder causes the bloodstream to circulate with an excessive amount of sugar. Diabetes type 2 can lead to heart disease, renal disease, and stroke if left untreated.

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 can begin in childhood and adulthood, but type 2 diabetes used to be classified as adult-onset diabetes. Although type 2 diabetes tends to affect older people more frequently, it is now increasingly prevalent in younger people as a result of the rise in childhood obesity.

Diabetes type 2 is not the same as diabetes type 1. The pancreas doesn’t create any insulin if the patient suffers from type 1 diabetes. In type 2, the pancreas produces insufficient insulin, and the insulin that is produced, isn’t always as effective as it should be.

Type 2 diabetes has no known cure, but can be controlled by maintaining a good weight, eating healthy, and exercising. By making lifestyle changes, utilizing medication, insulin, and/or both, along with regular doctor visits, the patient can manage the disease.


Type 2 diabetes signs and symptoms gradually occur. A patient may have type 2 diabetes for years without realizing it. When they are present, the following symptoms and indicators may be present:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination (commonly at night)
  • Excessive hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Blurry vision
  • Cuts and sores heal slowly.
  • Areas of skin that have darkened, typically around the armpits and neck
  • Numbness or tingling sensation in the hands or feet

It is recommended to have a physical consultation with the healthcare professional if the patient experiences any signs and symptoms of diabetes type 2.


Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body’s cells stop responding to insulin and the pancreas produces less insulin than is required. Blood glucose level rises when they do not consume sugar in the proper amounts. Insulin resistance is a condition when cells do not respond to insulin.

Although the exact cause of this is uncertain, being overweight and being sedentary are major risk factors.

Risk factors

Type 2 diabetes risk factors include the following:

  • Family history: If any of the parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes, the risk of developing it also increases.
  • Age: as the person ages, the risk also increases, especially age of 35 and above.
  • Body mass index: people who are overweight or obese have a higher risk to develop diabetes type 2.
  • Fat distribution: A higher risk is indicated if the fat is stored primarily in the abdomen rather than at the hips and thighs. Male with a waist measurement above 40 inches (101.6 centimeters) or a woman with a measurement over 35 inches (88.9 centimeters), they have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Prediabetes: When the blood sugar level is over normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes, it is called prediabetes. Prediabetes frequently develops into type 2 diabetes if left untreated.
  • Pregnancy-related risks: If the mother developed gestational diabetes while expecting a child or had a baby who was more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms) at birth, the risk of getting type 2 diabetes is increased.
  • Blood lipid levels: Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high levels of triglycerides are linked to a higher risk.
  • Inactivity: Exercise controls the weight, burns glucose as energy, and increases the susceptibility of the cells to insulin. The risk increases with decreased activity.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Diabetes is more likely in those with polycystic ovarian syndrome, a common disorder characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, excessive hair growth, and obesity.