Type 1 diabetes


Diabetes type 1 is a chronic disease that the pancreas does not make insulin or makes little insulin. Insulin is the hormone responsible for regulation of sugar in the blood and utilize it to make energy. In the absence of insulin, blood sugar cannot enter cells and accumulates in the bloodstream. The body is harmed by high blood sugar, which also contributes to many of the complications and symptoms of diabetes.

Diabetes type 1 is also known as juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes may be brought on by genetics and some viruses. While type 1 diabetes typically first manifests in childhood or adolescence, it can also affect adults.

Type 1 is less common than the type 2 diabetes. There is still no cure for type 1 diabetes. The goal of treatment is to prevent problems by controlling blood sugar levels with the use of insulin, diet control, and lifestyle changes.


Type 1 diabetes symptoms usually begin mildly and gradually develop worse or worsen over a period of days, weeks, or months.

The following list of signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes may also appear:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Blurry vision
  • Cuts and sores heal slowly.

If type 1 diabetes is left untreated, it could become life-threatening and if the diagnosis is delayed then the condition could lead to a condition known as diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA). It is recommended to seek immediate medical attention if the child exhibits the following signs and symptoms:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fruity-smelling breath
  • Stomach pain
  • Rapid breathing
  • Confusion
  • Loss of consciousness


It is unclear what causes type 1 diabetes but it occurs when insulin-producing cells (islet cells) in the pancreas are unintentionally attacked and destroyed by the immune system. This deterioration may take months or years to complete, leading to a complete lack of insulin.

Type 1 diabetes may be develop due to specific genes (traits transferred from parent to child). Despite having the genes, many of them will not develop type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes may also be brought on by an environmental cause, such as a virus. Type 1 diabetes is not brought on by diet or way of life.

Risk factors

The following are some risk factors for type 1 diabetes:

  • Family history: A person’s risk of getting type 1 diabetes is somewhat increased if they have a parent or a sibling who has the disease.
  • Genetics: Type 1 diabetes is more likely to develop if specific genes are present.
  • Age: Despite having two distinct peaks, type 1 diabetes can manifest at any age. In kids between the ages of 4 and 7, the first peak happens. Children from 10 to 14 are affected by the second.