Thyroid cancer


A butterfly-shaped gland called the thyroid can be found near the base of the neck, just below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid produces hormones that control weight, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood flow. A cell growth that begins in the thyroid is called thyroid cancer.

Initially, thyroid cancer may not show any signs. However, as it develops, it may show symptoms like neck enlargement, voice changes, and trouble swallowing.

There are various types of thyroid cancer, some are aggressive, but majority develop slowly. Treatment is often effective in curing thyroid malignancies.

The incidence of thyroid cancer appears to be rising. The rise could be attributed to better imaging technology, which enables medical professionals to detect tiny thyroid tumors on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans conducted for other ailments (incidental thyroid cancers). The thyroid tumors discovered in this approach are typically small and treatable.


Early in the disease, there are no signs or symptoms of thyroid cancers. As thyroid cancer spreads, it could result in:

  • Swallowing difficulty
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck
  • A lump (nodule) on your neck that can be felt through the skin
  • The impression that tightly fitting shirt collars are becoming overly restrictive
  • Pain in your neck and throat
  • Hoarseness

Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any signs or symptoms that alarm you.


When thyroid cells experience DNA alterations, thyroid cancer results. The instructions that inform a cell what to do are encoded in its DNA. The adjustments, which scientists refer to as mutations, instruct the cells to proliferate and expand quickly. When healthy cells would ordinarily die, the cells continue to exist. A tumor is a mass that develops from the collecting cells.

The tumor has the potential to invade adjacent tissue and spread (metastasize) to the lymph nodes in the neck. The cancer cells may occasionally spread from the neck to the lungs, bones, and other bodily regions.

It is unclear what causes the DNA mutations that lead to thyroid cancer in the majority of cases.

Risk factors

The following elements may raise the risk of thyroid cancer:

  • Female. Women than men are more likely to develop thyroid cancer which might be connected to the estrogen hormone.
  • Exposure to high levels of radiation. Thyroid cancer risk is raised by radiation therapy for the head and neck.
  • Familial genetic syndromes. Familial adenomatous polyposis, multiple endocrine neoplasia, Cowden syndrome, and familial medullary thyroid cancer are among the genetic syndromes that raise the risk of thyroid cancer. Medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer are two thyroid cancer subtypes that might occasionally run in families.