Testicular torsion


Testicular torsion is a serious medical emergency characterized by the twisting of the spermatic cord, which cuts off blood flow to the testicle. This sudden rotation causes intense pain and swelling due to the lack of blood supply. Testicular torsion typically occurs in individuals between the ages of 12 and 18, but it can happen at any stage of life, including before birth. Usually, only one testicle is affected. It is more frequently observed in the left testicle compared to the right.

Emergency surgery is typically necessary to resolve testicular torsion. Prompt treatment usually allows for the preservation of the affected testicle. However, if blood flow is blocked for an extended period, severe damage may occur, potentially leading to the necessity of testicle removal.


The following signs and symptoms of testicular torsion may include

  • Swelling of the scrotum
  • Sudden and severe pain in the scrotum
  • Discoloration (red, purple, brown, black) in your scrotum.
  • One testicle is higher in your scrotum than the other.
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Frequent urination
  • Nausea and vomiting

Testicular torsion in young boys usually causes scrotal pain that wakes them up in the middle of the night or early in the morning.

If you have sudden or severe testicular pain, seek immediate emergency attention. If you have testicular torsion, prompt treatment can save serious damage or possibly the loss of your testicle.

Additionally, you should get medical attention immediately if you experience unexpected testicular pain that goes away on its own. Intermittent torsion and detorsion, or the twisting and untwist of a testicle on its own. In order to keep the issue from recurring again, surgery is frequently required.


Testicular torsion is the result of the testicle rotating on the spermatic cord, which supplies the testicle with blood from the abdomen. Damage can occur more quickly if the testicle rotates multiple times because blood flow to it may be completely cut off.

The cause of testicular torsion is unknown. The majority of men who develop testicular torsion are born with a genetic characteristic that permits the testicle to freely rotate inside the scrotum. This inherited condition typically affects both testicles. However, not every male with the trait will experience testicular torsion.

Testicular torsion frequently happens when you’re sleeping, a few hours after intense physical activity, or following a minor testicular injury. Another factor could be the cold climate or the testicles’ quick growth during adolescence.

Risk factors

The following factors may increase the likelihood of testicular torsion.

  • Age: The age range of 12 to 18 is the most common for testicular torsion.
  • History of testicular torsion: Testicular pain that resolved spontaneously without treatment. (intermittent torsion and detorsion) is prone to recur. The likelihood of testicular injury increases with the frequency of pain episodes.
  • The condition may also run in families.