Sjogren’s syndrome


Sjogren’s syndrome is an immune system dysfunction characterized by its two most prevalent symptoms, dry eyes and a dry mouth. It is named after Swedish ophthalmologist Henrik Sjögren, who originally described the disorder.

The mucous membranes and glands that produce moisture in your mouth and eyes are typically the first parts of the body to experience Sjogren’s syndrome, which causes less saliva and tears to be produced. Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are two immune system disorders that frequently coexist with the condition.

Despite the fact that Sjogren’s syndrome can strike at any age, the majority of cases involve adults over the age of 40. Women are much more likely to have the condition. Symptom relief is the main goal of treatment.

Two types of Sjögren’s syndrome

  • Primary Sjögren’s syndrome develops alone, not as a result of another medical problem.
  • Secondary Sjögren’s syndrome occurs in addition to autoimmune conditions including lupus, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.


Sjogren’s syndrome primarily manifests these two symptoms:

  • Dry eyes. It may hurt, itch, or feel like there is sand in your eyes.
  • Dry mouth. It could be challenging to swallow or speak because your mouth may feel as though it’s full with cotton.

Some Sjogren’s syndrome sufferers also have one or more of the following conditions:

  • Exhaustion
  • Dry cough
  • Losing a tooth or tooth decay
  • Swollen salivary glands notably the group placed below your jaw and in front of your ears
  • Changes in sense of taste
  • Stiffness, swelling, and joint pain
  • Dry vagina
  • Dryness of the skin or rashes


Sjögren’s syndrome is a medical condition characterized by an autoimmune response. Your body’s own cells and tissues are accidentally attacked by your immune system.

The cause of Sjogren’s syndrome in certain patients remains unknown to scientists. A triggering mechanism, such as infection with a specific virus or strain of bacteria, appears to be required in addition to certain genes that increase a person’s risk of developing the disorder.

Your immune system targets the glands that produce saliva and tears first when you have Sjogren’s syndrome. However, it can potentially harm other areas of your body, including the thyroid, lungs, liver, kidneys, skin, joints, and nerves.

Risk factors

The majority of people with Sjogren’s syndrome have one or more of the following risk factors:

  • Age. Sjogren’s syndrome is typically identified in patients over the age of 40.
  • Sex. Sjogren’s syndrome is substantially more common among women.
  • Rheumatic disease. A rheumatic disease, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, is frequently present in Sjogren’s syndrome patients.