Rosacea is a common skin disease marked by facial flushing or persistent redness, often accompanied by the enlargement of blood vessels and the emergence of small, pus-filled bumps. Symptoms can vary, with flare-ups lasting weeks to months followed by temporary remission periods.

Due to its resemblance to acne, dermatitis, and other skin conditions, rosacea may be misdiagnosed. Although there’s no cure, it can typically be controlled with medication, gentle skincare routines, and avoidance of triggers that worsen symptoms.

Types of rosacea

There are four distinct types of rosacea, which are:

  • Erythematotelangiectatic: Rosacea manifests as persistent facial redness accompanied by enlarged and visible blood vessels. This type of flare manifests with symptoms that arise and subside unexpectedly.
  • Papulopustular: Pus- or fluid-filled pimples develop on the skin, resulting in swelling and symptoms resembling acne.
  • Phymatous: Symptoms lead to skin swelling and thickening, often resulting in a bumpy texture, with the nose being the most commonly affected area. In severe cases, symptoms may cause the nose to appear bulbous, a condition known as rhinophyma.
  • Ocular: Rosacea can impact the eyes, leading to sensations of irritation and redness, or excessive tearing. Light sensitivity may also occur, accompanied by the formation of painful bumps on the eyelids, known as styes.


Symptoms associated with rosacea comprise:

  • Redness and flushing of the face. Rosacea may cause more frequent flushing of the face. You might observe that your face remains red over time. Depending on the tone of the skin, redness can appear more pink or purple or be faint.
  • Visible blood vessels. The nose and cheeks have tiny blood vessels that rupture and enlarge. Another name for these is spider veins. Depending on the color of the skin, they could be faint and difficult to notice.
  • Enlarged bumps. Many rosacea sufferers get facial pimples that resemble acne. There may be pus present in these bumps. They could also show up on the back and chest.
  • A feeling of burning. The afflicted area’s skin may feel sensitive and heated.
  • Enlarged nose. Over time, rosacea can thicken the skin on the nose, making the nose look bigger. This condition is also known as rhinophyma and affects more men than women.
  • Eye problems. Many people with rosacea also have dry, irritated, swollen eyes and eyelids. Eye symptoms can appear before, after, or at the same time as skin symptoms. This condition is known as ocular rosacea.

If you’re dealing with persistent symptoms impacting your face or eyes, it’s important to seek medical assistance from a healthcare provider for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Dermatologists, specialized in skin conditions, can offer tailored care for rosacea and associated issues.


The precise cause of rosacea remains unknown. It may stem from genetic predispositions, an overactive immune response, or environmental triggers. Notably, rosacea isn’t linked to poor hygiene and isn’t contagious.

Flare-ups of rosacea may be triggered by:

  • Alcohol.
  • Hot drinks.
  • Spicy foods.
  • Sun or wind.
  • Very hot and cold temperatures.
  • Cosmetics and skin/hair care items.
  • Emotional stress.
  • Exercise.
  • Certain medications for blood pressure, including those that dilate blood vessels.

Risk factors

While rosacea can affect anyone, certain factors may heighten the risk of developing it if you:

  • Are between the ages of 30 and 50.
  • Have skin prone to sunburn.
  • Have a family member with rosacea.
  • Have a history of smoking.