Retinal Diseases


Retinal diseases encompass a range of conditions that affect the retina, the delicate tissue lining the inner back wall of the eye. This layer is crucial for vision, containing millions of light-sensitive cells known as rods and cones, along with other nerve cells that process visual information. Light enters the eye through the cornea, passes through the pupil, and is focused by the lens onto the retina, where it is converted into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve, which interprets them as images.

The central area of the retina, known as the macula, is vital for detailed vision and can be impacted by various retinal diseases. Some of these conditions are inherited and can affect different parts of the retina, leading to symptoms that can impair one’s ability to see.

Treatment options for retinal diseases vary depending on the specific condition but generally aim to halt or slow progression to preserve, improve, or restore vision. While some retinal diseases can be managed effectively, others may lead to irreversible vision loss if not addressed in a timely manner. It is essential for individuals experiencing visual symptoms to seek medical evaluation to diagnose and treat potential retinal diseases promptly.


  • Retinal tear: This occurs when the vitreous, a gel-like substance in the eye’s center, shrinks and tugs on the retina, potentially leading to a tear. Symptoms often include sudden floaters and flashing lights.
  • Retinal detachment: Characterized by the accumulation of fluid under the retina, often through a retinal tear, causing the retina to separate from its underlying layers.
  • Diabetic retinopathy: In people with diabetes, the small blood vessels at the back of the eye can deteriorate and leak fluid, causing retinal swelling and vision distortion. New, fragile blood vessels may also develop and bleed, worsening vision.
  • Epiretinal membrane: A thin, tissue-like scar or membrane that forms over the retina, distorting vision by making objects appear blurred or crooked.
  • Macular hole: A small break in the macula, the central part of the retina, which can arise from abnormal traction between the retina and vitreous or following an eye injury.
  • Macular degeneration: The central area of the retina degenerates, leading to blurred central vision or a blind spot. It typically starts as dry macular degeneration and can progress to the wet type.
  • Retinitis pigmentosa: An inherited condition that gradually deteriorates the retina, leading to the loss of night and peripheral vision.


Common Symptoms of Retinal Diseases
Retinal diseases often manifest through several shared symptoms. Be aware of the following:

  • Floaters and cobwebs: Seeing floating specks or web-like structures in your vision.
  • Blurred or distorted vision: Difficulty seeing clearly, where straight lines may appear wavy.
  • Peripheral vision defects: Changes or defects in side vision.
  • Vision loss: Any decrease in vision quality or clarity.

Testing vision in each eye separately can help detect these changes more clearly.

It’s crucial to monitor any changes in your vision. Prompt medical care is essential. Seek immediate attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  • Sudden appearance of floaters or flashes of light.
  • A noticeable reduction in vision.

These symptoms can indicate a serious retinal condition requiring urgent care.

Risk factors

Factors that increase the risk of retinal diseases could comprise:

  • A history of retinal disorders in the family.
  • Growing older.
  • Having a weight problem.
  • Having additional illnesses, such as diabetes.
  • Injury to the eyes.
  • Cigarette smoking.