Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition where there is a narrowing between the valve in the right ventricle and pulmonary artery which causes a decrease in blood flow through the valve due to the stiffness or thickness of the valve flaps (cusps).
This condition commonly results from congenital heart defects. The heart condition can exist on its own or in connection with other congenital abnormalities of the heart and may be mild or severe. Adults, however, may experience pulmonary valve stenosis as a complication of another condition.
Mild pulmonary valve stenosis might be asymptomatic and occasionally need medical interventions. The valve may need to be repaired or replaced in cases of moderate and severe pulmonary valve stenosis.
Mild pulmonary stenosis may be asymptomatic. People with moderate and severe pulmonary stenosis could experience symptoms for the first time when exercising. The signs and symptoms of pulmonary valve stenosis depend on the amount of blood flow that has been blocked.
Signs and symptoms of pulmonary valve stenosis can include:
- Heart murmur
- Breathing difficulties or shortness of breath
- Fatigue or weakness
- Chest pain
- Fainting or loss of consciousness
Among other congenital heart problems, pulmonary valve stenosis can cause infants to have bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanotic). Infants with a severe obstruction may not gain weight at the expected rate or fail to thrive.
If the patient is having any signs or symptoms, please consult the doctor. The early diagnosis and treatment help lower the risk of complications of pulmonary stenosis.
The precise cause of pulmonary valve stenosis is still not known. The most common cause of pulmonary valve stenosis is a congenital heart defect. Inadequate pulmonary valve development occurs as the newborn child is growing inside the womb.
The pulmonary valve is composed of three flaps (cusps), which are thin bits of tissue. Every time the heart beats, your cusps open and close, ensuring that blood flows in the proper directions. However, during the pulmonary valve stenosis, the valve doesn’t open properly due to that one or more cusps being stiff or thickened, or fused together.
The right ventricle’s pressure rises as blood struggles to pass through the narrower opening, which makes it difficult for blood to leave the lower right heart chamber (right ventricle). The increasing pressure puts strain on the heart and eventually thickens the muscle wall of the right ventricle.
The following diseases or conditions can raise the risk of developing pulmonary valve stenosis:
- Rubella (German measles): Pregnancy-related German measles (rubella) increases the risk of pulmonary valve stenosis in the fetus.
- Noonan syndrome: This inherited condition affects the structure and function of the heart.
- Rheumatic fever: This strep throat complication has the potential to permanently harm the heart, particularly the heart valves and may raise the possibility of developing pulmonary valve stenosis.
- Carcinoid syndrome: A rare malignant tumor causes shortness of breath, flushing, and other signs and symptoms by releasing specific chemicals into the bloodstream. Carcinoid heart disease affects heart valves and is seen in certain individuals with this illness.