Lymphoma is a cancer that occur in the lymphatic system, which is a component of the body’s defense against infection. The lymphatic system encompasses various components such as lymph nodes (also known as lymph glands), spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. Lymphoma has the potential to impact all these regions, along with other organs found throughout the body.

Lymphoma comes in various types. The primary types include:

  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

The type and severity of the patient’s lymphoma will determine the appropriate course of treatment. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, a bone marrow transplant, or a combination of these treatments may be used to treat lymphoma.


Many of the symptoms of lymphoma are exhibited by other diseases. Experiencing these symptoms does not necessarily indicate the presence of lymphoma. Lymphoma signs and symptoms may include:

  • Painless lymph node swelling in the groin, armpits, or neck
  • Constant fatigue
  • Unexplained fever
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Skin itchiness

If someone has any troubling signs or symptoms, and if a patient’s symptoms persist for more than a few weeks, they should consult a healthcare provider.


What causes lymphoma is unknown to healthcare providers. But it starts when a genetic mutation occurs in a lymphocyte, a type of white blood cell that fights infection. The mutation instructs the cell to divide quickly, producing lots of sick lymphocytes that keep reproducing.

Additionally, the mutation enables the cells to continue to exist when other normal cells would have died. The lymph nodes, spleen, and liver enlarge as a result of having an excessive number of diseased and inefficient lymphocytes there.

Risk factors

Despite the fact that most cancers are the result of random chance, experts have identified a number of factors that may increase the risk:

  • Age: While some lymphoma kinds are more frequently diagnosed in people over 55, others are more frequently found in young adults.
  • Family history: A family member with lymphoma could increase the likelihood in developing the condition.
  • Gender: Males are somewhat more likely than females to get lymphoma.
  • Impaired immune system: People with immune system disorders or those who take immunosuppressive medications are more likely to develop lymphoma.
  • Certain infections: The Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori infection are two infections linked to a higher risk of lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi sarcoma could also increase the risk in developing lymphoma.