Kidney infection


Pyelonephritis, commonly known as a kidney infection, is a form of urinary tract infection (UTI) that originates in either the urethra or the bladder. The infection has the potential to spread to one or both kidneys.

While the symptoms of a kidney infection and a lower UTI might be similar, a kidney infection is more likely to cause sudden sickness, fever, or pain in the side or lower back. Compared to lower UTIs, kidney infections can be more dangerous

Treatment for kidney infection frequently includes antibiotics. Immediate medical attention is required for kidney infection. An infection may harm the kidneys permanently if it is not appropriately treated. Or bacteria could go into the bloodstream and start a condition that is potentially dangerous


Among the signs and symptoms of a kidney infection includes:

  • Fever and chills 
  • Painful urination 
  • Urgent urge or frequent urination 
  • Lower back pain or pain at the side
  • Abdominal pain 
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pus or blood in the urine 
  • Cloudy or foul odor urine

If a person has symptoms of a kidney infection, they should schedule a visit with their healthcare provider. If the patient is receiving treatment for both a UTI and other conditions, but their symptoms are not improving, they should also visit their healthcare provider

Serious kidney infections can result in severe outcomes. They might result in tissue damage or death, or blood poisoning. If the patient is experiencing nausea, vomiting, bloody urine, or other symptoms of a kidney infection, they should seek immediate medical attention


The most common cause of kidney infections is bacteria, which can grow and move to the kidneys after entering the urine tract through the urethra. E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter, or Staphylococcus are a few of the bacteria that can result in kidney infections

The kidneys can also be affected by the spread of bacteria from an infection occurring in another area of the body, which can travel through the bloodstream. This can lead to a kidney infection or pyelonephritis. Rarely, a kidney infection can be brought on by an artificial joint or heart valve that develops an infection. In.

In rare cases of kidney infection develops after kidney surgery.

Risk factors

Kidney infections are more likely as a result of the following factors:

  • Gender: The shorter urethra in women than in men makes them more susceptible to this condition. This facilitates the movement of bacteria into the bladder from the outside of the body. Additionally, because the urethra is so close to the vagina and the anus, bacteria can enter the bladder more easily.
An infection of the bladder has the potential to move to the kidneys. Kidney infection is more likely to occur in pregnant women.
  • Blockage: Any factor that reduces urine flow or makes it more difficult to completely empty the bladder increases the risk of kidney infection. A kidney stone, a constricted urethra, or an enlarged prostate gland are examples of this. Pressure caused by the pregnancy could all increase the risk
  • Vesicoureteral reflux: Having a medical problem that causes the urine to flow incorrectly, small quantities of urine flow backward from the bladder into the tubes that connect the bladder and kidneys. Kidney infections are more common in people with this illness, both as children and as adults.
  • Having a weakened immune system. A weakened immune system can increase the susceptibility to various health conditions. Medical conditions like diabetes and HIV have the potential to compromise the immune system, making it less effective in defending against infections and diseases. Additionally, several medications might reduce immunity. These include medications used to prevent organ rejection that are administered after the transplant.
  • Damage to nerves of the bladder: Damage to the spinal cord or nerves might mask the symptoms of a bladder infection. Due to this, it may be challenging to detect kidney infection.
  • Urinary catheter: Tubes called urinary catheters are used to remove urine from the bladder. Sometimes catheters are utilized following a surgical operation or diagnostic examination. Additionally, they are employed in bedridden patients.