The face and eye on one side of the body may be impacted by Horner syndrome. The condition caused by a disturbance of the nerve pathway from the brain to the head and neck.
The sympathetic nerves that connect your brainstem to your eyes and face are disrupted, which causes it to happen. These nerves regulate involuntary functions, including sweating (perspiration) and the constriction and dilation of your eye pupils.
Horner syndrome frequently manifests as drooping eyelids, smaller pupils, and reduced facial perspiration on the affected side.
A stroke, tumor, spinal cord damage, or another medical condition may cause Horner syndrome. Sometimes there is no underlying reason for a problem. Horner syndrome doesn’t have a specific treatment, however addressing the underlying cause may help nerve function return.
Oculosympathetic palsy and Bernard-Horner syndrome are other names for Horner syndrome.
Only one side of the face is often affected by Horner syndrome. Typical warning signs and symptoms include:
Ptosis and anhidrosis are two signs and symptoms that might be subtle and challenging to recognize.
Children with Horner syndrome may sometimes show additional symptoms like:
Horner syndrome can be brought on by several things, some of which are more significant than others. Obtaining a timely and correct diagnosis is crucial.
Get immediate medical attention if Horner syndrome symptoms occur unexpectedly, follow a traumatic event, or are accompanied by other symptoms, such as:
Damage to a specific sympathetic nervous system circuit results in Horner syndrome. The sympathetic nervous system controls your heart rate, breathing, sweating, blood pressure, and other bodily processes that let you react promptly to environmental changes.
There are three different types of nerve cells (neurons) along the nerve pathway that are impacted by Horner syndrome.
The hypothalamus at the base of the brain serves as the starting point for this neuron pathway, which continues via the brainstem and into the upper part of spinal cord. Horner syndrome-related issues in this area that may impair nerve function include:
From the spinal column, this neuron tract travels through the upper chest and into the side of the neck. The following factors could contribute to nerve injury in this area:
Damage to this neural pathway, which runs alongside the neck, and leads to facial skin, muscles controlling the iris and the eyelids. Impairment in this area can be linked to the following conditions or symptoms:
Children’s Horner syndrome is most frequently caused by:
In some circumstances, it is impossible to determine what causes Horner syndrome. Idiopathic Horner syndrome is the term for this.
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