Heart disease


A variety of disorders that affect the heart are referred to as heart diseases. It’s also called cardiovascular disease, which mean heart and blood vessel disease. Heart conditions consist of:

  • Heart valve disease
  • Diseases of the blood vessels (e.g., coronary artery disease)
  • Heart muscle disorder
  • Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)
  • Congenital heart defects

Healthy lifestyle choices, including eating well, managing weight, not smoking, and exercising regularly may reduce heart disease risk.


Different types of heart disease have different symptoms.

  • Symptoms of heart disease in the blood vessels
    A common cardiac disorder called coronary artery disease affects the main blood arteries that nourish the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease is typically brought on by cholesterol buildup (plaques) in the heart arteries. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of these plaques. Reduced blood flow to the heart and other body organs is a result of atherosclerosis which may result in a heart attack, angina, or a stroke.

Men and women may experience different symptoms of coronary artery disease. For instance, chest pain is more common among men. Along with chest tightness, women are more prone to experience additional symptoms like breathlessness, nausea, and excessive weariness.

Coronary artery disease symptoms may manifest the following:

    • Breathing difficulty
    • Chest pressure and chest discomfort (angina), chest tightness, and chest pain
    • Pain in the neck, jaw, throat, upper belly area or back
    • If the blood arteries in the legs or arms are narrowed, you may experience pain, numbness,
    • weakness, or coldness there.

It’s possible that coronary artery disease will not be discovered until after a heart attack, angina, stroke, or heart failure. It’s crucial to keep an eye out for heart symptoms and talk to your doctor if you have any concerns. Regular health examinations can potentially detect heart (cardiovascular) illness early.

  • Heart disease symptoms caused by irregular heartbeats (heart arrhythmias)
    It’s possible for the heartbeat to be excessively fast, too slow, or irregular. Symptoms of heart arrhythmias may include:

    • Near fainting or fainting (syncope)
    • Chest pain or discomfort
    • Fast heartbeat (tachycardia) or slow heartbeat (bradycardia)
    • Breathing difficulty
    • Dizziness or lightheadedness
    • Chest fluttering
  • Heart disease symptoms caused by congenital heart defects
    Significant congenital heart abnormalities are typically discovered shortly after birth. Children with congenital cardiac defects may exhibit the following signs:

    • Pale gray or blue skin or lips (cyanosis)
    • Swelling in the legs, belly area or areas around the eyes
    • Shortness of breath during feedings in a baby causes low weight gain.

Congenital cardiac abnormalities that are less significant are frequently not discovered until later in infancy or into maturity. Conspicuously non-life-threatening signs of congenital cardiac abnormalities include:

    • Swelling of the hands, ankles or feet
    • Shortness of breath during exercise or activity
    • Fatigue during exercise or activity
  • Heart disease symptoms caused by diseased heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
    Cardiomyopathy’s early stages may not show any symptoms at all. Symptoms that emerge as the illness becomes worse include:

    • Fatigue
    • Swollen legs, ankles or feet
    • Dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting
    • Shortness of breath during activity or at rest
    • Trouble in breathing when trying to sleep at night or when you wake up
    • Irregular heartbeats that feel rapid, pounding or fluttering
  • Heart disease symptoms caused by heart valve problems (valvular heart disease)
    The aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid valves are the four valves of the heart. To let blood to flow through the heart, they open and close. Heart valves can be harmed by a variety of factors. A constricted (stenotic), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or poorly closing cardiac valve (prolapse) can occur. Heart valve disease is another name for valvular heart disease. The following symptoms of cardiac valve disease typically appear depending on which valve is not functioning properly:

    • Fainting (syncope)
    • Chest pain
    • Irregular heartbeat
    • Fatigue
    • Breathing difficulty
    • Swollen feet or ankles

The inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valves are both impacted by endocarditis, an infection (endocardium). Symptoms of endocarditis include:

    • Constant or dry cough
    • Fever
    • Unusual spots or rashes on the skin
    • Alterations in heartbeat
    • Difficulty of breathing
    • Weakness or fatigue
    • Swollen belly or legs

If you experience any of these heart disease symptoms, call for emergency medical help immediately.

    • Chest pain
    • Fainting
    • Breathing difficulty

If you believe you may be experiencing a heart attack, call emergency medical assistance right away.

Early detection of heart disease makes treatment easier. If you have any worries regarding the condition of your heart, consult your doctor. You can talk to your doctor about methods to lower your risk of developing heart disease. If you have a history of heart disease in your family, this is very crucial.


The reasons for a particular form of heart disease vary. Heart disease comes in a variety of forms.

  • Causes of coronary artery disease
    The most frequent cause of coronary artery disease is atherosclerosis, which is a buildup of fatty plaques in the arteries. Poor diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and smoking are risk factors. The risk of atherosclerosis can be reduced by leading a healthy lifestyle.
  • Causes of irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias)
    The following are some conditions or common causes of arrhythmias:

    • High blood pressure
    • Smoking
    • Coronary artery disease
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Diabetes
    • Drug abuse
    • Emotional stress
    • Over-consumption of alcohol or caffeine
    • Congenital heart defects
    • Heart valve disease
    • Taking some medications, including over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements, without a prescription
  • Causes of congenital heart defects
    During the course of a baby’s development in the womb, a congenital heart problem may form. About a month after conception, the baby’s developing heart gives rise to a congenital heart defect. Congenital heart abnormalities alter the heart’s blood flow. Congenital heart problems are more likely to occur as a result of certain diseases, drugs, and genetic factors.
  • Causes of a thickened or enlarged heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
    The type of cardiomyopathy determines its cause:

    • Dilated cardiomyopathy. This most prevalent kind of cardiomyopathy frequently has an unknown origin. It might be inherited from parents to children (inherited). Usually, the main pumping chamber of the heart is where dilated cardiomyopathy first manifests (left ventricle). Heart attacks, infections, poisons, and some medications, including those used to treat cancer might harm the left ventricle.
    • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Typically, families pass along this kind of condition (inherited).
    • Restrictive cardiomyopathy. The least frequent form of cardiomyopathy which could happen for no apparent cause. Cardiovascular amyloidosis, an accumulation of the protein amyloid in the heart, and connective tissue problems might sometimes be the reason.
  • Causes of heart infection
    When bacteria enter the heart or heart valves, a heart infection such as endocarditis results. Heart infections have the following most typical causes:

    • Viruses
    • Bacteria
    • Parasites
  • Causes of heart valve disease
    Heart valve problems can be brought on by a variety of factors. Some people have heart valve problems from birth (congenital heart valve disease). Conditions like the following may also contribute to heart valve disease:

    • Rheumatic fever
    • Disorders of connective tissues
    • Infectious endocarditis