Graves’ disease


Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the immune system attacking the thyroid gland, a small gland located in the neck. The cause of this immune response is still unknown. The thyroid gland plays a vital role in regulating metabolism by releasing hormones. When affected by Graves’ disease, the thyroid gland becomes overactive, leading to a condition called hyperthyroidism. Although the condition can affect anyone, it is more commonly observed in women and individuals under 40 years old.

The symptoms of Graves’ disease can vary widely and affect different body systems. Common signs include rapid heartbeat, weight loss, anxiety, irritability, and trembling hands. Other possible symptoms include bulging eyes, sensitivity to heat, fatigue, and muscle weakness. The severity of symptoms can differ from person to person.

The primary goal of treating Graves’ disease is to reduce the excessive production of thyroid hormones and alleviate symptoms. Treatment options may include medication to regulate hormone levels or inhibit hormone synthesis. In some cases, radioactive iodine therapy or surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland may be necessary. The treatment plan may vary depending on factors such as the individual’s overall health, age, and the severity of the condition. Regular monitoring and follow-up are essential to manage the disease effectively.


The signs and symptoms of Graves’ illness typically appear gradually over a period of weeks or months. The following are common Graves’ disease signs and symptoms:

  • Anxiety and nervousness
  • Palpitation or irritability
  • Tremor of the hands or fingers
  • Sensitivity to heat
  • Unexplained weight loss or increase appetite
  • Goiter, an enlarged thyroid gland
  • Menstrual cycles changes
  • Erectile dysfunction or reduced libido
  • Diarrhea or frequent bowel movements
  • Fatigue or muscle weakness
  • Sleep disturbance or insomnia
  • Hair loss or texture change

Graves’ ophthalmopathy: Also known as orbitopathy or thyroid eye illness. About 30% of Graves’ disease patients exhibit some Graves ophthalmopathy symptoms. Muscles and other tissues around the eyes are affected by inflammation and other immune system activities in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Some warning signs and symptoms include:

  • Puffy or swelling of the tissue around the eyes
  • Bulging eyes
  • Gritty sensation or irritation in the eyes
  • Pressure or pain in the eyes
  • Inflamed eyes or redness
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Double vision or blurred vision
  • Vision loss

Graves’ dermopathy: Graves’ disease can sometimes lead to a less common condition known as Graves’ dermopathy, characterized by the thickening and reddening of the skin. This typically occurs on the lower legs, specifically the shins or the tops of the feet.

If you notice any signs or symptoms related to Graves’ disease, it is important to consult your doctor promptly for an accurate diagnosis, as various medical conditions can produce similar effects. In case you experience heart-related indications like a fast or irregular heartbeat, or if you encounter vision loss, it is crucial to seek emergency medical care.


Autoimmune diseases like Graves’ disease have an unknown cause. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), an antibody, is produced excessively by the immune system as a result of some triggering factors. Thyroid hormone production is increased when TSI binds to healthy thyroid cells.

Normally, the immune system makes antibodies that are intended to attack a particular virus, bacteria, or other foreign object. For unknown reasons, the immune system creates an antibody against a portion of the cells of the thyroid gland, a gland in the neck that produces hormones, in Graves’ disease.

A hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small organ near the base of the brain, normally controls thyroid function. Thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb), an antibody that is associated with Graves’ disease, functions similarly to the regulating pituitary hormone. In other words, TRAb interferes with the thyroid’s normal regulatory system, resulting in hyperthyroidism, or the overproduction of thyroid hormones.
Graves’ ophthalmopathy is caused by an accumulation of certain carbohydrates in the muscles and tissues behind the eyes; the exact reason for this accumulation is unknown. The tissues surrounding the eyes may be attracted by the same antibodies that can lead to thyroid disease.

When hyperthyroidism first manifests, or a few months later, Graves’ ophthalmopathy frequently follows. However, ophthalmopathy signs and symptoms might manifest years before or after the onset of hyperthyroidism. Even without hyperthyroidism, Graves’ ophthalmopathy might still manifest.

Risk factors

Graves’ illness can affect anyone, however a number of factors can make it more likely to occur, such as:

  • Family history: The presence of a family history of Graves’ disease increases the risk of developing the disorder, indicating the involvement of one or more genes that may make individuals more susceptible to this condition.
  • Age: People under the age of 40 typically get Graves’ disease. However, it can also affect children and older individuals.
  • Sex: Graves’ disease predominantly affects women, making them more prone to developing the condition than men.
  • Smoking: The risk of Graves’ disease is heightened by cigarette smoking, which can impact the immune system. Smokers with Graves’ disease also face an elevated risk of developing Graves’ ophthalmopathy.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnancy or recent childbirth can elevate the risk of developing Graves’ disease, especially in women with genetic predisposition for the disorder.
  • Other autoimmune disorders: There is a higher risk for people with various problems such type 1 diabetes, lupus, celiac disease, or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Emotional or physical stress: In individuals with genetic predisposition, stressful life events or illness can potentially serve as triggers for the development of Graves’ disease.