A glioma is a type of tumor that originates in the brain or spinal cord. These tumors consist of cells that bear a resemblance to healthy glial cells, which are responsible for supporting and nourishing nerve cells. Gliomas often blend with normal brain tissue and grow within the brain itself, making them known as intra-axial brain tumors.

A tumor is a collection of cells that develops as a glioma expands. The tumor may enlarge to put pressure on the spinal cord or brain tissue, leading to symptoms. The specific area of the brain or spinal cord that is affected determines the symptoms.

Gliomas come in a variety of forms. Some develop slowly and are not categorized as cancers. Some are regarded as malignant. Malignant is another name meaning cancerous. Malignant gliomas can invade healthy brain tissue and grow rapidly. Glioma of some forms usually affects adults. Others usually affect children.

Your glioma type aids your medical team in determining the severity of your problem and the most effective course of treatment. Treatment options for gliomas generally include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other treatments.


The location of the tumor affects the glioma symptoms. The type, size, and rate of growth of the glioma can all affect the symptoms.

Glioma symptoms frequently seen include:

  • Vomiting.
  • Nausea.
  • Numbness.
  • Weakness in the face, arms, or legs.
  • Irritability.
  • Losing memory.
  • Changes in personality.
  • Mental confusion or brain function deterioration, such as issues with reasoning and comprehension.
  • Headaches, especially those that are worse in the morning.
  • Seizures, particularly in someone who has never experienced seizures.
  • Eye conditions such double vision, blurred vision, or loss of peripheral vision.
  • Problem with speech.

If you experience any signs or symptoms that worry you, schedule a visit with your healthcare professional.


Gliomas have unknown causes, according to doctors. It begins when DNA alterations occur in brain or spinal cord cells. The instructions that inform a cell what to do are encoded in its DNA.

The DNA alterations instruct the cells to divide rapidly. When healthy cells would die, the cells keep going. There are too many dysfunctional cells as a result. A tumor is a mass made up of the cells.

The tumor may enlarge to put pressure on adjacent nerves, the brain, or the spinal cord. This results in glioma symptoms and may have negative effects.

Some gliomas undergo additional DNA alterations that turn them into brain cancers. The adjustments instruct the cells to invade and damage healthy brain tissue.

The tumor cells in gliomas resemble the glial cells, which are the healthy brain cells. In the brain and spinal cord, glial cells encircle and support nerve cells.

Risk factors

Glioma risk factors include the following:

  • Old age. Adults with gliomas tend to be between the ages of 45 and 65. Gliomas, however, can strike at any age. Some glioma subtypes are more prevalent in children and young adults.
  • Radiation exposure. Ionizing radiation is a category of radiation that increases the risk of glioma in those who have been exposed to it. Radiation therapy for cancer treatment, a form of ionizing radiation, is one example.
  • Familial history of glioma. Although extremely rare, glioma can run in families. To determine whether parents can convey a glioma risk to their children, more research is required.

Men and Caucasians are slightly more likely than women and African-Americans to develop gliomas, respectively.