Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a medical condition characterized by abnormal cell growth in the arteries of the body. This condition primarily affects medium-sized arteries and can lead to both narrowing (stenosis) and enlargement (aneurysm) of these blood vessels. The most commonly affected arteries are those leading to the kidneys and brain, but other arteries, such as those in the legs, heart, abdomen, and occasionally the arms, can also be involved. The consequences of FMD can include reduced blood flow and impaired organ function due to the narrowed arteries.
FMD primarily occurs in women but can affect individuals of any age or gender. The symptoms experienced can vary depending on which arteries are affected. Examples of symptoms associated with FMD include migraines and blood pressure problems. In severe cases, FMD can lead to the development of aneurysms and increase the risk of stroke. While treatments exist to manage the symptoms and complications of FMD, there is currently no known cure for this condition.
There are two distinct classifications of Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD), based on the observed characteristics of the arteries during diagnostic examinations:
The symptoms of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) can vary depending on which arteries are affected. Some individuals with mild cases may not experience any symptoms. However, for those with restricted blood flow, the following symptoms may occur:
FMD can also lead to serious medical complications, including:
If you have fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), it is crucial to seek immediate medical attention if you experience signs or symptoms that could indicate a stroke, such as sudden changes in vision, speech difficulties, or new weakness in your arms or legs. If you have other concerns or symptoms related to FMD, it is advisable to consult your doctor. Make sure to inform your doctor about your family’s medical history as FMD can occur in families, although it is uncommon. It is important to note that there is currently no genetic test available for diagnosing fibromuscular dysplasia.
The exact cause of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) remains unknown, although several factors are believed to contribute to its development:
There are a number of factors that could increase your risk of fibromuscular dysplasia.
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