Dyslexia, a learning disability characterized by challenges in reading, involves difficulty in identifying speech sounds and grasping their relation to letters and words, a process known as decoding. This condition is attributed to distinct variations in the regions of the brain responsible for language processing. Alternative term for a reading disability.

There are no cognitive, auditory, or visual issues that lead to dyslexia. A tailored education program or tutoring can help most dyslexic youngsters succeed in school. Support from others emotionally is also crucial.

While dyslexia cannot be cured, early detection and intervention yield the most favorable outcomes. Diagnosis may sometimes be delayed for years, and occasionally, individuals may not recognize the condition until adulthood. However, it’s important to emphasize that seeking assistance is beneficial at any stage, as it’s never too late to receive support and make progress.


Identifying dyslexia symptoms in your child before they begin school can be a daunting task, but there are specific indicators that may signal a concern. Once your child starts school, their teacher can often be the first to notice any issues. Dyslexia can vary in its intensity, but it commonly becomes apparent as a child embarks on the journey of learning to read.

Before school

Early warning signs of dyslexia in children include:

  • Starts talking late
  • Issues with naming letters, numbers, and colors or recalling them
  • Slowly acquire new vocabulary
  • Issues with word formation, such as misplacing similarsounding words or inverting sounds in words
  • Having trouble picking up nursery rhymes or participating in rhymebased games

School age

The following dyslexia symptoms could become more noticeable once your child starts school:

  • Trouble with spelling.
  • Reading comprehension well below ageappropriate levels.
  • Issues with remembering things in order.
  • Issues interpreting and comprehending what is heard.
  • Trouble coming up with the correct word or forming answers to questions.
  • Avoiding readingrelated activities.
  • Taking an exceptionally long time to finish reading or writing activities.
  • Difficulty seeing similarities and distinctions between letters and words, as well as occasionally hearing them.
  • An unknown word’s pronunciation being difficult to sound out.

Teens and adults

The symptoms of dyslexia in teens and adults are very similar to those in children. Teens and adults with dyslexia frequently experience the following symptoms:

  • Trouble with spelling
  • Having trouble reading, even out loud
  • Avoiding readingrelated activities
  • Pronunciation errors or issues with word retrieval
  • Reading and writing that takes a lot of time and effort
  • Trouble making a summary of a story
  • Issues with foreign language acquisition
  • Having trouble doing word problems in math

Many children with dyslexia often encounter difficulties in learning to read by kindergarten or first grade, a period when most kids are typically ready to start reading. If you notice that your child’s reading skills lag behind their peers or observe other signs of dyslexia, it is advisable to seek guidance from a healthcare professional. Failing to accurately diagnose and address dyslexia during childhood can result in reading difficulties persisting into adulthood.


Individual differences in the parts of the brain that facilitate reading are the cause of dyslexia. Usually, it runs in families. It appears that specific genes that have an impact on how the brain processes language and reading are associated with dyslexia.

Causes could be:

  • Genetics. Highly inherited, dyslexia runs in families. A child has a 30% to 50% probability of inheriting dyslexia if one parent has the condition. Dyslexia may also be more common in people who have genetic disorders like Down syndrome
  • Variations in the development and function of the brain Having dyslexia makes you neurodivergent. That indicates that your brain is not wired or functions as it should. According to research, people with dyslexia have altered brain chemistry, function, and structure.
  • Disruptions in brain development and function. Events like infections, chemical exposures, and others can interfere with fetal development and raise the risk that dyslexia will develop later in life.

Risk factors

The likelihood of having dyslexia increases if there is a family history of the condition or other reading or learning problems.