Adenomyosis is a condition where the endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, develop into the uterine muscle wall. Throughout every menstrual cycle, the displaced tissue functions normally, thickening, degrading, and bleeding. Period pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and pelvic or abdominal pain can all be symptoms of adenomyosis.

Adenomyosis doesn’t usually generate symptoms, many women are unaware that they have the disorder. However, adenomyosis symptoms typically worsen with time. The likelihood of anemia is increased by adenomyosis-related heavy menstrual flow. When the body doesn’t produce enough iron-rich red blood cells, anemia develops.

Although the cause of adenomyosis is unknown, the condition typically goes away after menopause. Hormonal therapies may help women who experience severe pain from adenomyosis. Adenomyosis is treated by having the uterus removed (hysterectomy).


The uterus might expand. Even though they might not be aware that their uterus is larger, they might feel pressure or soreness in their lower abdomen. Adenomyosis can occasionally go undetected or just cause minor pain. But adenomyosis can result in:

  • Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Abnormal menstruation
  • Painful menstrual cramping (dysmenorrhea)
  • Chronic pelvic pain with or without cramping
  • Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)

Make an appointment to visit a healthcare provider if the person experiences excessive bleeding that lasts for a long time or severe abdominal pain during periods that interferes with their normal activities.


Adenomyosis has an unknown cause. There are several concepts thay may cause the condition, such as:

  • Invasive tissue growth: According to some specialists, the muscle that makes up the uterine walls is invaded by endometrial cells from the uterus’ lining. Endometrial cells may directly invade the uterine wall as a result of uterine incisions produced during procedures like cesarean sections (C-sections).
  • Developmental origins: According to other researchers when the uterus first develops in the fetus, endometrial tissue is thought to be deposited in the uterine muscle.
  • Uterine inflammation related to childbirth: Adenomyosis and childbirth may be related. An interruption in the usual boundary of the cells that line the uterus may result from postpartum uterine lining inflammation.
  • Stem cell origins: Adenomyosis may develop as a result of bone marrow stem cells penetrating the uterine muscle, according to a recent theory.

No matter how adenomyosis arises, the amount of circulating estrogen in the body is necessary for its development.

Risk factors

Adenomyosis risk factors includes the following:

  • Age: The condition is common to people around 40 to 50 yearls old
  • Childbirth: Women with history of childbirth increases the risk.
  • History: surgery on the uterus before, such as a C-section, fibroid removal, or dilatation and curettage (D&C)

The majority of women in their 40s and 50s are affected by adenomyosis, which is an estrogen-dependent condition. These women’s higher estrogen exposure than younger women’s may be the cause of their adenomyosis. But according to recent study, younger women may also be more susceptible to the illness.