Prostatitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the prostate gland. Prostatitis frequently results in genital, pelvic, or groin pain in addition to painful or difficult urinating. Some cases of prostatitis are caused by bacterial infections, but not all.

The prostate gland, which is roughly the size of a walnut, is positioned directly below the bladder in men. It encircles the upper part of the urethra, the tube that empties the bladder of urination. The fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation is produced by the prostate and other sex glands.

Four types of prostatitis are commonly known as:

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: Acute prostatitis results from bacterial infectionTreatment with antibiotics is necessary for the management of acute bacterial prostatitis.
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: Chronic or recurrent bacterial prostatitis, which typically presents with milder symptoms. Symptoms may appear gradually and treatment may take longer.
  • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: This is the most common type of prostatitis. Persistent or recurrent pelvic pain with urinary tract symptoms without signs of infection. 
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis or nonbacterial prostatitis: Although there are no symptoms, the condition causes inflammation the prostate gland. It is not an infection and does not require treatment


Signs and symptoms of prostatitis differ according on the type and cause. If you encounter changes in your urination or feel pain in your pelvic, it’s important to consult healthcare providers

It’s possible that nonbacterial prostatitis patients show no symptoms at all. The following symptoms are common to the other three kinds of prostatitis:

  • Blood in the urine or hematuria
  • Cloudy urine.
  • Frequent urge to urinate, particularly at night (nocturia)
  • Having difficulty to urinate.
  • Painful urination or dysuria.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen, groin, perineum or lower back
  • Pain or discomfort of the penis or testicles
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Flulike symptoms, including chills, fever, and aches in the muscles (with acute bacterial prostatitis)

Signs and symptoms of prostatitis can be caused by a number of disorders. It is important to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment as soon as possible.

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience the following:

  • Blood in the urine.
  • Painful urination.
  • Unable to urinate.
  • Fever.
  • Severe pain in the pelvic area or genitals


The causes of different types of prostatitis vary. In certain cases, the cause is obvious to be a bacterial infection, whereas in other cases it is unknown.

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: Common bacterial strains are typically the cause of acute bacterial prostatitis. It’s possible that the bacteria spread from other reproductive or urinary system.

A bacterial infection is the cause of the bacterial types of prostatitis. Through your urethra or when your urine flows backward (vesicoureteral reflux), bacteria can enter your prostate. The following are potential causes of bacterial prostatitis: 

    • Bladder infections 
    • Bladder stones.
    • Prostate stones.
    • Using a urinary catheter.
    • Having a prostate biopsy.
    • Urinary retention or urinary blockage
    • Urinarty tract infections (UTIs).
    • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
    • Injury to your pelvic area.
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: The cause of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis is typically the same. It could happen if an acute infection is not properly treated, meaning that not all of the bacteria are eliminated.
  • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS): There is not much information about chronic pelvic pain syndrome. According to research, a number of components can be involved. These include a history of infection, problems with the neurological or immune systems, psychological stress, or abnormal hormone levels.

The following conditions may be involved in chronic pelvic pain syndrome:

    • Pelvic floor muscle damage.
    • Pelvic nerve irritation or inflammation.
    • Autoimmune diseases.
    • Stress.
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: This is typically discovered only during an examination for other medical disordersIt generally does not require treatment.

Risk factors

The following potential risk factors for bacterial prostatitis includes:

  • Age: Young adulthood or middle age

The chance of developing any type of prostatitis is increased in individuals over 50 who also have an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia).

  • History: Previously diagnosed with prostatitis are at risk to develop the condition again.
  • Other condition: Patients suffering from HIV infection or AIDS, as well as infections of the reproductive system or urinary tract.
  • Trauma: Individuals who have experienced trauma or nerve injury in their pelvises may be more susceptible to chronic pelvic pain syndrome
  • Using a catheter: Those patient who are using a urinary catheter, a tube that is placed into the urethra to empty the bladder are at risk
  • Psychological stress