Maxillofacial Surgery


Maxillofacial surgery is a specialized branch of dentistry focused on addressing diseases, injuries, and abnormalities affecting the face, jaw, and mouth. Maxillofacial surgeons, highly trained specialists in this field, diagnose and treat conditions involving the bones and tissues of the jaw and lower face, the roof of the mouth, and dental issues. They are advanced specialists who diagnose and treat problems aimed at correcting these conditions to improve both function and aesthetics.

Reasons for undergoing the procedure

The main purpose of maxillofacial surgery is to reduce pain and enhance jaw function.

Maxillofacial surgery can treat an extensive variety of oral issues and disorders, including:

  • Determining the cause of persistent dental pain.
  • Preparation of implants and prosthetics (like dentures) in the mouth.
  • Installing dental implants.
  • Extracting teeth that are impacted.
  • Oral diseases treatment.

Treatments for jaw issues include the following:

  • Bone grafting, which is the process of replacing lost jaw bone with bone from another part of the body.
  • Repairing your jaw to fix an unusual bite.
  • Treating abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which affect the area where your skull and lower jaw meet.
  • Taking care of injuries caused by trauma to the mouth, jaw, and face.
  • Treating congenital (existing from birth) conditions like cleft lip and palate.
  • Making the diagnosis and treating head and neck growths, tumors, cancer, and cysts.
  • Determining the cause of persistent face pain.
  • Providing treatment for injuries to the face, such as maxillofacial tissue damage or facial fractures.


Maxillofacial surgery carries certain risks, just like any other operation. These include:

  • Bleeding.
  • Infection.
  • Changes in sensation or numbness in your mouth or other facial areas.
  • Damage to the maxillofacial bones or tissue, as well as the teeth, lips, tongue, cheeks, chin, sinuses, and nasal cavity.
  • Dry socket, a painful condition involving blood clot issues that may develop following tooth extraction.
  • Pain.
  • There could be potential harm to the nerves that control some facial muscles.
  • Rare complication following surgery is the breakage of a tooth root fragment that remains in place.
  • TMJ conditions.

Before the procedure

Your healthcare provider will recommend you to a specialist if you require maxillofacial surgery. You will have a consultation with the maxillofacial surgeon to:

  • Inquire about your overall health, present medications, medical history, and symptoms.
  • Assess the area around your mouth and teeth.
  • Make arrangements for diagnostic tests as needed, such as 3D scans or dental X-rays, to obtain precise photographs of the maxillofacial structures.
  • Make a diagnosis, then suggest surgery or another course of treatment.
  • You may need to have someone to drive you home if you are given anesthesia.

During the procedure

The nature of maxillofacial surgery varies significantly based on the method and condition. You can have certain procedures performed as an outpatient procedure and return home the same day. In order to attain the intended outcomes, other treatment approaches call for several procedures.

Maxillofacial surgeons are qualified and permitted to provide anesthetic in order to numb discomfort or induce sleep. Your healthcare provider will discuss with you whether anesthesia is necessary for you and which kind is most appropriate.

Your surgeon may use stitches to repair any surgical incisions at the end of the procedure. In order to shield your teeth or the wound and to absorb bodily fluids like pus and blood, the surgeon may also apply packing in your mouth.

After the procedure

Your healthcare provider is going to transfer you to a recovery room after maxillofacial surgery so they can keep an eye on you when you wake out of anesthesia.

You may experience the following after the procedure:

  • Bleeding.
  • Bruising.
  • Restricted use of the teeth and jaw.
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Swelling.

You will have a discussion with your surgical team on the procedure, when you may return home, and self-care tips while you recover.


Recovering from maxillofacial surgery varies depending on the procedure. You may encounter discomfort, sensitivity, swelling, and bleeding for several days. Your healthcare provider might suggest pain medication for relief. If stitches are involved, they’ll either dissolve or be removed within about a week.

During recovery, you may need to adhere to specific guidelines, such as:

  • Apply ice packs to reduce swelling.
  • Avoid crunchy, chewy, or hard foods.
  • Steer clear of tobacco and alcohol.
  • Refrain from exercising to prevent increased bleeding and swelling.
  • Rest to minimize complications.
  • Rinse your teeth instead of brushing to maintain oral hygiene.

If you notice any signs of infection or complications, promptly seek medical attention, including:

  • Fever or chills.
  • Persistent swelling or pain.
  • Unusual tastes in the mouth.
  • Excessive pus or bleeding.