The following procedures are employed to make a diagnosis of sarcoma and evaluate its stage.

  • A physical examination will be perform by the doctor to obtain a better understanding of the patient’s symptoms and could help with the diagnosis.
  • Imaging tests will facilitate visualization of the condition. The type of imaging procedure that will be appropriate for the patients varies on the situation. X-rays give a better result of visualizing the bone problems while MRI is used to detect the abnormalities of the connective tissue. Ultrasound, CT scan, bone scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scans are additional imaging tests that could be utilized accordingly. 
  • Biopsy is a removal of tissue sample for laboratory tests. The procedure is carried out by taking a piece of suspicious tissue and sends it for a lab test. This will indicate the nature of the cells, whether they are cancerous and what type of cancer they are, helping the doctors to choose the right treatment method for the patient.

Biopsy sample can be taken by a needle injecting the skin or remove a small portion during a surgery. In some cases, biopsy is done while the surgery is performed for the removal of the cancer.

Further investigating tests may be advised by the doctor to discover the signs that cancer has spread to other parts of the body if sarcoma is detected.


Sarcoma is usually treated with surgery to remove the cancer. Other treatments might be used before or after surgery. Which treatments are best for you will depend on the type of sarcoma, its location, how aggressive the cells are and whether cancer has spread to other parts of your body.

  • Surgery is done with the objective of completely removing the entire cancer cells. There may be some situations that amputation of an arm or leg becomes a necessity in order to remove all the cancer. However, surgeons are keen to keep the limb function when it is possible. Vital structures such as nerves or organs may be affected during the surgical procedure. Therefore, doctors will remove sarcoma as much as possible without injuring the organs.
  • Radiation therapy is the use of high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays and protons. It is used to kill cancer cells. The radiation can be applied through a machine that targeting the beams of energy (external beam radiation) directly to the affected area. Another way radiation therapy is given is by placing the radiation inside the body and removing it later. This method is known as brachytherapy. In some cases, radiation is given during the operation to remove the cancer, this is called intraoperative radiation.
  • Chemotherapy is drug chemicals that are used to kill cancer cells.
  • Targeted therapy drugs attack a particular weakness in the cancer cells. Sarcoma cells can be tested to determine the possibility of the response rate of targeted therapy drugs.
  • Immunotherapy utilizes immune system to fight against cancer. Immune system in the human body might not harm cancer cells as they create proteins that unable the immune system cells to be aware. Immunotherapy interferes with this mechanism.
  • Ablation therapy kills cancer cells by using electricity to heat up the cells, freezing with a cold liquid or ultrasound waves with high frequency.