Post-vasectomy pain syndrome


A vasectomy is a minor procedure aimed at obstructing the passage of sperm into the semen. It serves as a widely used method of male contraception by cutting and sealing the tubes responsible for carrying sperm. Subsequently, sperm, no longer able to reach the semen, are naturally absorbed by the body.

While vasectomy carries a low risk of complications, some men may experience Post-Vasectomy Pain Syndrome (PVPS). This condition involves persistent pain in one or both testicles that persists for at least three months following the procedure. The intensity of pain can vary from occasional dull discomfort to sharp, continuous pain that disrupts daily activities. In severe cases, the pain may prompt individuals to seek medical intervention.


Experiencing discomfort following a vasectomy is typical, however, individuals with PVPS endure persistent pain that fails to alleviate post-procedure. Signs and symptoms of PVPS may encompass:

  • Dull ache in one or both testicles
  • Scrotal soreness and tenderness
  • Pain and soreness at the vasectomy site
  • Pressure or pain following ejaculation
  • Pain during sexual activity.
  • Swelling of the epididymis, a tiny, C-shaped tube that stores sperm behind the testicle

Seek immediate medical attention if you experience testicular pain or swelling, penile discharge, or discomfort during urination. Your doctor can potentially address the underlying cause with medication or a minor procedure. For severe scrotal pain, seek emergency care without delay.


The underlying causes of PVPS are not fully understood. Potential factors contributing to it may involve:

  • Back pressure. Back pressure may result from sperm that are unable to pass through the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm from each testicle and is cut during a vasectomy.
  • Compression of nerves. PVPS symptoms may be brought on by a constriction of the nerves that supply the testicles.
  • Tissue scarring. Adhesions, or scar tissue, can develop and be painful.
  • Infection. The scrotum, epididymis, and other structures along the spermatic cord—the cord that supplies blood vessels and nerves to the testicle—can sustain damage from inflammation.

Risk factors

No identifiable risk factors have been linked to the development of PVPS. It does not correlate with any particular age group, socioeconomic status, environmental factors, or type of vasectomy procedure.