A swelling or inflammation of one or both testicles is known as orchitis. Orchitis can be caused by viral or bacterial infections, or it can have no apparent cause. The most common cause of orchitis is a bacterial infection, such as those contracted during sexually transmitted infection (STI). The mumps virus can occasionally result in orchitis.

The inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and transports sperm at the back of the testicle, may be caused by bacterial orchitis, this condition is known as epididymo-orchitis.

Orchitis may interfere with fertility and cause pain. Medication can address the underlying causes of bacterial orchitis and help alleviate certain signs and symptoms of viral orchitis. However, the recovery of scrotal pain may require a several weeks.


Signs and symptoms of orchitis might include the following:

  • Swelling of one or both testicles
  • Mild to severe testicle pain.
  • Fatigue or malaise.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

There are instances when “groin pain” and “testicle pain” are used together. However, groin pain doesn’t originate in the testicle; rather, it comes from the fold of skin between the thigh and abdomen. It is not the same as testicular pain for which there are different causes.

Testicle pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, some of which need to be treated immediately. Testicular torsion is one such condition that can cause pain similar to orchitis. It includes twisting of the spermatic cord. Tests might be conducted by your healthcare provider to identify the condition causing your pain.

See a healthcare provider as soon as possible if you experience any scrotal pain or swelling, especially if it occurs instantly.


Infections with bacteria or viruses can cause orchitis. Orchitis commonly arises from urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. Epididymitis can also be a cause of orchitis.

  • Bacterial orchitis: The majority of the time, epididymitis causes or is associated with bacterial orchitis. Typically, an infection of the bladder or urethra that travels to the epididymis causes epididymitis.
    A STI is typically the cause of the infection. A catheter or other medical equipment placed into your penis, or the fact that you were born with abnormalities in your urinary tract, are other possible causes of infection.
  • Viral orchitis: Viral orchitis is typically caused by the mumps virus. About one-third of boys who get the mumps after puberty develop orchitis, typically occurring four to seven days following the onset of mumps.

Risk factors

Sexually transmitted orchitis is a risk associated with sexual behaviors that might result in STIs. Those actions consist of:

  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Having sexual intercourse with someone who has an STI
  • Having sexual intercourse without using procection such as condom
  • Having a personal history of an STI

The following are risk factors for non-sexually transmitted orchitis:

  • Having a urinary tract abnormality from birth.
  • Not having received the mumps vaccination.
  • Experiencing frequent urinary tract infections.
  • Getting surgery on the urinary tract or genitalia.