The diagnosis of hydrocele often requires several tests and investigations. It usually begins with a physical examination which includes conducting a transillumination test. In transillumination, the doctor will hold a light behind the scrotum to determine if there is any fluid collection in the location. The doctor might also examine the enlarged scrotum and soreness and check on the abdomen and scrotum to evaluate for an inguinal hernia.
Depending on the evaluation of the healthcare provider, additional tests may be necessary. This includes:

  • Imaging test: The ultrasound imaging will help screen out hernias, testicular tumors, and other causes of scrotal enlargement.
  • Blood and urine tests: This will screen for infections present in the body, particularly epididymitis.


No medications can treat a hydrocele. In most cases, it will resolve on its own without any treatment. A hydrocele may not have painful symptoms, but it should be evaluated as it can be related to an underlying testicular disease possibly affecting males of all ages.
If the hydrocele hinders with one’s day-to-day living, or progresses and does not resolve on its own, it must be surgically repaired to avoid further complications. A hydrocelectomy is an outpatient surgical procedure to repair a hydrocele. To treat the hydrocele, a small cut is made in the scrotum or abdomen. Depending on the size and position of the hydrocele, the patient may need a drainage tube and thick bandage for a few days. Surgery to remove a hydrocele is performed under anesthesia.
After the surgical repair, the doctor may suggest for a scheduled check-up because a hydrocele may recur. In surgery for inguinal hernia, if a surgeon sees a hydrocele the surgeon usually removes the hydrocele as well.