The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia involves the following:
- Physical examination: This is to assess the symptoms, review of personal and family’s medical history, and do the physical exam.
- Lab tests: Blood and urine tests may reveal higher levels of specific enzymes and amino acids when fibrous dysplasia lesions are actively developing.
- Imaging tests: An X–ray records images of the bones, organs, and interior tissues that may help with the diagnosis. To further examine the afflicted bones, MRI or CT scan may be requested.
- Biopsy: This procedure can assist in identifying the presence of cancer or other aberrant cells. A tissue sample from the affected bone is taken and subjected to laboratory analysis.
- Bone scan: A very small quantity of radioactive dye is IV–injected into the body during this examination. This if often done to check for further lesions throughout the entire skeleton.
In treating fibrous dysplasia several factors must be considered such as the patient’s age, overall health, and medical history, tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies, and severity of the condition. Depending on the symptoms, the healthcare provider may only suggest regular monitoring of the condition.
- Medications: Bisphosphonates may be prescribed to alleviate pain and reduce the risk of fractures, while ongoing research assesses the efficacy of denosumab. Denosumab is a medication often employed in osteoporosis treatment.
- Surgery: Surgical interventions might involve inserting a rod inside the bone’s shaft, excising the impacted bone with subsequent bone grafting, or removal of bone wedge. Plates and screws may also be used to support the bone. Surgery may be recommended to help the bone stay in place, fix deformity, and stop subsequent fractures. Performing contouring or “shaving” of the impacted bone can lead to swift regrowth.
- Other treatments: Braces may offer fracture prevention benefits for certain individuals. Other pain management techniques and physical therapy may help people with FD.