It is an abnormal enlargement of the vein that is in the scrotum draining the testicles. A varicose vein around one of the two spermatic cords can cause blood to pool in the testes thus increases the temperature in this area. Increase in temperature results low sperm production and later on can lead to infertility.

Etiology:

Idiopathic varicocele

occurs when the valves within the veins along the spermatic cord do not work properly. And this results leading to permanent damage to the testicular tissue.

Secondary varicocele
It is due to compression of the venous drainage of the testicle.

Signs and Symptoms:

Dragging-like or aching pain within scrotum.
Feeling of heaviness in the testicle(s)
Atrophy (shrinking) of the testicle(s)
Visible or palpable enlarged vein, likened to feeling a bag of worms.

Treatment:

Varicocelectomy, the surgical correction of a varicocele, is performed on an outpatient basis.
3 most common approaches of Varicocelectomy procedure:
Inguinal (groin)
Retroperitoneal (abdominal)
Infrainguinal/subinguinal (below the groin)

Various other techniques may be used. Ice packs should be kept to the area for the first 24 hours after surgery to reduce swelling. The patient may be advised to wear a scrotal support for some time after surgery.